Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere.
Nature Gender and long term orientation nurture Although the formation of gender identity is not completely understood, many factors have been suggested as influencing its development.
In particular, the extent to which it is determined by socialization environmental factors versus innate biological factors is an ongoing debate in psychology, known as "nature versus nurture". Both factors are thought to play a role. Biological factors that influence gender identity include pre- and post-natal hormone levels.
As a baby, Reimer went through a faulty circumcision, losing his male genitalia.
Reimer grew up as a girl, dressing in girl clothes and surrounded by girl toys, but did not feel like a girl. After he tried to commit suicide at age 13, he was told that he had been born with male genitalia, which he underwent surgery to reconstruct. Hormonal influences are also complex; sex-determining hormones are produced at an early stage of foetal development,  and if prenatal hormone levels are altered, phenotype progression may be altered as well, and the natural predisposition of the brain toward one sex may not match the genetic make-up of the fetus or its external sexual organs.
Intersex A survey of the research literature from — suggests that more than one in every hundred individuals may have some intersex characteristic.
Biological causes of transgender and transsexuality[ edit ] See also: Causes of transsexualism Some studies have investigated whether or not there is a link between biological variables and transgender or transsexual identity.
Different amounts of these male or female sex hormones within a person can result in behavior and external genitalia that do not match up with the norm of their sex assigned at birth, and in a person acting and looking like their identified gender. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message InJohn Money proposed that gender identity was malleable and determined by whether a child was raised as male or female in early childhood. The child thus arrives to a gender-specific name, games, and even ambitions.
However, middle-class "professional" couples typically negotiate the division of labor and hold an egalitarian ideology. For example, mothers who practiced more traditional behaviors around their children resulted in the son displaying fewer stereotypes of male roles while the daughter displayed more stereotypes of female roles.
It was concluded, however, that fathers who held the belief of equality between the sexes had children, especially sons, who displayed fewer preconceptions of their opposite gender.
Gender variance and non-conformance[ edit ] See also: Cisgender Gender identity can lead to security issues among individuals that do not fit on a binary scale. These gender expressions may be described as gender varianttransgender, or genderqueer  there is an emerging vocabulary for those who defy traditional gender identity and people who have such expressions may experience gender dysphoria traditionally called Gender Identity Disorder or GID.
Transgender individuals are greatly affected by language and gender pronouns before, during, and after their transition. Some people who experience gender dysphoria seek such medical intervention to have their physiological sex match their gender identity; others retain the genitalia they were born with see transsexual for some of the possible reasons but adopt a gender role that is consistent with their gender identity.
During the mid s, doctors pushed for corrective therapy on such women and children, which meant that gender behaviors that were not part of the norm would be punished and changed. The aim of this therapy was to push children back to their "correct" gender roles and thereby limit the number of children who became transgender.
On this basis, he argued that bisexuality was the original sexual orientation and that heterosexuality was resultant of repression during the phallic stageat which point gender identity became ascertainable.
Psychoanalyst Robert Stoller generalized many of the findings of the project in his book Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity He is also credited with introducing the term gender identity to the International Psychoanalytic Congress in Stockholm, Sweden in Behavioral psychologist John Money was also instrumental in the development of early theories of gender identity. Gender & Sexual Orientation Katisha Lewis Axia College at University of Phoenix Dawn Byram ETH/ October 6, Gender & Sexual Orientation According to my research it states that throughout the history women have been treated as second- class citizens.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and tranceformingnlp.coming on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or. Sexual Orientation and Gender. Your sexual orientation and gender are important parts of who you are.
Learning more about gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation can help you understand yourself and the world around you. Long-term orientation versus short-term orientation is one of five cultural dimensions identified by Geert Hofstede. Cultures demonstrating a long-term orientation emphasize preparation for the.
Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation, to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In , Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint.