The information submitted is true and original as per my knowledge. Mulchandani Project Guide Prof.
The objectives of pricing should consider: Where manufacturing is expensive, distribution is exclusive, and the product is supported by extensive advertising and promotional campaignsthen prices are likely to be higher.
Price can act as a substitute for product quality, effective promotions, or an energetic selling effort by distributors in certain markets. From the marketer's point of view, an efficient price is a price that is very close to the maximum that customers are prepared to pay.
In economic terms, it is a price that shifts most of the consumer economic surplus to the producer. A good pricing strategy would be the one which could balance between the price floor the price below which the organization ends up in losses and the price ceiling the price by which the organization experiences a no-demand situation.
Pricing strategies Marketers develop an overall pricing strategy that is consistent with the organisation's mission and values. This pricing strategy typically becomes part of the company's overall long-term strategic plan. The strategy is designed to provide broad guidance for price-setters and ensures that the pricing strategy is consistent with other elements of the marketing plan.
While the actual price of goods or services may vary in response to different conditions, the broad approach to pricing i. Broadly, there are six approaches to pricing strategy mentioned in the marketing literature: In some cases, prices might be set to de-market.
The aim of value-based pricing is to reinforce the overall positioning strategy e. Where the objective is to encourage or discourage specific social attitudes and behaviours.
Tactical pricing decisions are shorter term prices, designed to accomplish specific short-term goals. The tactical approach to pricing may vary from time to time, depending on a range of internal considerations e. Accordingly, a number of different pricing tactics may be employed in the course of a single planning period or across a single year.
Typically line managers are given the latitude necessary to vary individual prices providing that they operate within the broad strategic approach.
For example, some premium brands never offer discounts because the use of low prices may tarnish the brand image. Instead of discounting, premium brands are more likely to offer customer value through price-bundling or give-aways.
When setting individual prices, decision-makers require a solid understanding of pricing economics, notably break-even analysis as well as an appreciation of the psychological aspects of consumer decision-making including reservation pricesceiling prices and floor prices.
The marketing literature identifies literally hundreds of pricing tactics. Rao and Kartono carried out a cross-cultural study to identify the pricing strategies and tactics that are most widely used.
In such cases, complementary pricing may be considered. It refers to a method in which one of two or more complementary products a deskjet printer, for example is priced to maximise sales volume, while the complementary product printer ink cartridges are priced at a much higher level in order to cover any shortfall sustained by the first product.Defining the marketing mix - the 4Ps and the 4Cs - product, price, promotion and place with convenience, cost, communication and customer needs.
This strategy could work in a commodity scenario but unlikely for premium products. Mix these with the perceived benefits and your pricing strategy should deliver the profits and margins required. Price depends on many factors – economic conditions, competitive situations, laws and regulations, development of the wholesale and retail system, consumer perceptions and preferences – E.g.
Sony may use penetration pricing in mature markets, but skimming pricing in less developed markets where less price sensitive segments are targeted.
Brand extension vs. new brand Brand name Brand associations Brand personality Brand elements (logo, color, font) TACTICAL DECIISIONS ‐ 4 P’s Product Decisions Main benefit Attribute configuration Packaging Pricing Decisions MSRP Penetration or skimming.
Online shops use dynamic and segmented pricing. Prices are adapted in real-time based on temporal factors (e. g., changes in competitors’ prices) and based on customer characteristics (e. g., browsing history).
a long-term penetration pricing strategy with the aim of gaining a very strong market position instead of generating profits. The Marketing mix of Nestle discusses the 4P's of Nestle which is one of the strong FMCG companies of the world.
The Nestle marketing mix shows Nestle has a strong product line. One of the most known coffee brands Nescafe, belongs to the house of Nestle and is one of the cash cows for Nestle. Mar 21, · • Impact the old traditional Italian cooking techniques to manufacture market penetration with the finest thing open.
Key to Success The keys to accomplishment in this business are: • Quality: Giving the highest quality Coffee and food with individual client administration.