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We know, of course, that academic English is a complex and unstable target. Acknowledgments Grateful acknowledgment is given to the following for use of copyrighted or manuscript material. Benny Bechor for "Navigation. Businesses," by John B. Bowles and Colon E. The Role of Urban Planners.
Pierre Martin for his textual outline. Hansch, Physical Review A, 48, no. Scientific American for source material for summary based on information from "Madagascar's Lemurs," by Ian Tattersall, Scientific American, January The Vocabulary Shift Language Focus: Linking Words and Phrases Language Focus: Verbs and Agents in the Solution Language Focus: Prepositions of Time 77 77 80 80 82 82 85 86 90 92 95 97 99 Unit Five: Nominal that-Clauses Language Focus: Unreal Conditionals Language Focus: Articles in Academic Writing Two: Academic English and Latin Phrases Three: Electronic Mail Selected References Index Introduction Overview This textbook is designed to help graduate students with their academic writing.
It is designed for nonnative speakers of English. It has evolved out of both research and teaching experience. The general approach is rhetorical; that is, it focuses on making a good impression with academic writing.
The book is as much concerned with developing academic writers as it is with improving academic texts. The tasks, activities, and discussions are richly varied, ranging from small-scale language points to studying the discourse of a chosen discipline. The book is fast paced, opening with a basic orientation and closing with writing an article for publication.
With the help of the accompanying commentary, students and scholars should be able to use this volume profitably on their own. Audience We have created this textbook for people who are not native speakers of English yet are studying for graduate degrees at both masters and doctoral levels through or partly through the medium of English.
Although the book is primarily based on our experience at research universities in the United States, we believe that much of it will prove helpful and useful to graduate students in other countries. Parts of the book may also be of assistance to nonnative speaker scholars and researchers, particularly Units Seven and Eight, which deal with constructing a research paper for possible publication.
By and large, we do not think Academic Writing for Graduate Students should be used with undergraduates, particularly those in their first year. In our experience, the strengths and weaknesses in the writing of nonnative speaker undergraduates and graduates are very different.
We have also done our best to incorporate into the teaching materials insights and findings derived from the growing number of studies into the characteristics of academic English itself.
We are, in fact, firmly committed to the view that a book on academic English should itself be "academic," that is, not merely based on guesswork, untested speculation, and received opinion. Restrictions We know, of course, that academic English is a complex and unstable target.
Especially at the graduate level, there are clear differences among texts typical of the arts or humanitiesthe social sciences, the natural sciences, the life sciences, and those produced in professional schools such as engineering or architecture. For reasons that we will explain later, we nevertheless believe that this textbook will have something useful to say and teach about writing in much—but not all—of this very broad area.
We would, in fact, only definitely exclude students who are following graduate degree courses in fields where the "essayist" tradition still prevails, such as in literature, or students whose writing requirements are professional for example, persuasive memos in business administration, briefs in law, or case reports in medical sciences.
We should perhaps also exclude graduate-level written work in mathematics, because of the unusual nature of such texts. Second, we have stressed throughout that academic writing is rhetorical.
All of us, as academic writers and whatever our backgrounds, are engaged with thinking about our readers' likely expectations and reactions, with deciding on what to say—and what not to say—about our data, and with organizing our texts in ways that meet local conventions and yet create a space for ourselves.
Third, and perhaps most important, we have avoided laying down rules about what a member of a disciplinary community should or should not do in a particular writing situation. Instead, we have encouraged users of AWG to find out for themselves what the conventions of their fields actually are.
For example, whether introductions to research papers should or should not include a summary of the principal results seems to vary among the disciplines; therefore, we ask users of the book to examine a small sample of introductions from their own fields and report back.
It is our experience, especially with more senior students, that a multidisciplinary class has several advantages over a monodisciplinary one.
It turns attention away from whether the information or content in a student draft is "correct" toward questions of rhetoric and language.Download PDF. 7 downloads 13 Views 2MB Size Report. Unit One An Approach to Academic Writing Graduate students face a variety of writing tasks as they work toward their chosen degrees.
Naturally, these tasks will vary from one degree program to another. bytes of ROM, an 8 channel analog-digital converter, and a real time clock is. siderations involved in successful academic writing, with a deliber- 4 / Academic Writing for Graduate Students ate stress on early exposure to the concept of positioning.
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