The foundations and history of artificial

Cybernetics takes as its domain the design or discovery and application of principles of regulation and communication. Cybernetics treats not things but ways of behaving. It does not ask "what is this thing?

The foundations and history of artificial

Machines capable of playing chess have fascinated people since the latter half of the 18th century, when the Turk, the first of the pseudo-automatons, began a triumphal exhibition tour of Europe.

Like its 19th-century successor Ajeeb, the Turk was a cleverly constructed cabinet… What is intelligence? All but the simplest human behaviour is ascribed to intelligence, while even the most complicated insect behaviour is never taken as an indication of intelligence.

What is the difference? Consider the behaviour of the digger waspSphex ichneumoneus. When the female wasp returns to her burrow with food, she first deposits it on the thresholdchecks for intruders inside her burrow, and only then, if the coast is clear, carries her food inside.

Intelligence—conspicuously absent in the case of Sphex—must include the ability to adapt to new circumstances. Psychologists generally do not characterize human intelligence by just one trait but by the combination of many diverse abilities.

Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components of intelligence: Learning There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to artificial intelligence.

The simplest is learning by trial and error. For example, a simple computer program for solving mate-in-one chess problems might try moves at random until mate is found.

The program might then store the solution with the position so that the next time the computer encountered the same position it would recall the solution.

This simple memorizing of individual items and procedures—known as rote learning—is relatively easy to implement on a computer. More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization. Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations.

Reasoning To reason is to draw inferences appropriate to the situation. Inferences are classified as either deductive or inductive.

The foundations and history of artificial

Inductive reasoning is common in sciencewhere data are collected and tentative models are developed to describe and predict future behaviour—until the appearance of anomalous data forces the model to be revised. Deductive reasoning is common in mathematics and logicwhere elaborate structures of irrefutable theorems are built up from a small set of basic axioms and rules.

There has been considerable success in programming computers to draw inferences, especially deductive inferences. However, true reasoning involves more than just drawing inferences; it involves drawing inferences relevant to the solution of the particular task or situation.

This is one of the hardest problems confronting AI. Problem solving Problem solving, particularly in artificial intelligence, may be characterized as a systematic search through a range of possible actions in order to reach some predefined goal or solution.

Problem-solving methods divide into special purpose and general purpose.

Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy

A special-purpose method is tailor-made for a particular problem and often exploits very specific features of the situation in which the problem is embedded. In contrast, a general-purpose method is applicable to a wide variety of problems. One general-purpose technique used in AI is means-end analysis—a step-by-step, or incrementalreduction of the difference between the current state and the final goal.

Many diverse problems have been solved by artificial intelligence programs. Perception In perception the environment is scanned by means of various sensory organs, real or artificial, and the scene is decomposed into separate objects in various spatial relationships.

Analysis is complicated by the fact that an object may appear different depending on the angle from which it is viewed, the direction and intensity of illumination in the scene, and how much the object contrasts with the surrounding field.Foundations of Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Ashwin Ram and Eric Jones Appears in Philosophical Psychology, 8(2) Foundations of Artificial Intelligence (edited by David Kirsh, MIT Press, ) presents a number of chapters from major players in artificial intelligence (AI) that discuss fundamental assumptions underlying the .

EXPERIMENTS IN PLANT HYBRIDIZATION () GREGOR MENDEL Read at the February 8th, and March 8th, , meetings of the Brünn Natural History Society Mendel, Gregor. Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden. Our Story. Udacity began as an experiment in online learning, when Stanford instructors Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig elected to offer their "Introduction to Artificial Intelligence" course online to .

ASC Constitution Cybernetics seeks to develop general theories of communication within complex systems. The abstract and often formal mathematical nature of its aim makes cybernetics applicable to any empirical domain in which processes of .

Artificial Reef Program. The Miami-Dade County Artificial Reef Program was established in Documented artificial reed construction in Miami's coastal waters, however, predates the program by more than five decades.

Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals.

History of artificial intelligence - Wikipedia