Bison had yielded to cattle; mountains had been blasted and bored.
The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy took more than a century in the United States, but that long development entered its first phase from the s through the s. The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain during the midth century, but the American colonies lagged far behind the mother country in part because the abundance of land and scarcity of labor in the New World reduced interest in expensive investments in machine production.
Nevertheless, with the shift from hand-made to machine-made products a new era of human experience began where increased productivity created a much higher standard of living than had ever been known in the pre-industrial world. The start of the American Industrial Revolution is often attributed to Samuel Slater who opened the first industrial mill in the United States in with a design that borrowed heavily from a British model.
Slater's pirated technology greatly increased the speed with which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he introduced a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution required several other elements before it would transform American life.
Another key to the rapidly changing economy of the early Industrial Revolution were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had begun with the "outwork system" whereby small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes.
This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the "factory system" where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location.
Among the early innovators of this approach were a group of businessmen known as the Boston Associates who recruited thousands of New England farm girls to operate the machines in their new factories. The most famous of their tightly controlled mill towns was Lowell, Massachusetts, which opened in The use of female factory workers brought advantages to both employer and employee.
The Boston Associates preferred female labor because they paid the young girls less than men. These female workers, often called "Lowell girls," benefited by experiencing a new kind of independence outside the traditional male-dominated family farm.
The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the s.
Dramatically increased production, like that in the New England's textile mills, were key parts of the Industrial Revolution, but required at least two more elements for widespread impact. First, an expanded system of credit was necessary to help entrepreneurs secure the capital needed for large-scale and risky new ventures.
Second, an improved transportation system was crucial for raw materials to reach the factories and manufactured goods to reach consumers. State governments played a key role encouraging both new banking institutions and a vastly increased transportation network.
This latter development is often termed the Market Revolution because of the central importance of creating more efficient ways to transport people, raw materials, and finished goods. It enjoyed great success, which led to the opening of branch offices in eight major cities by Although economically successful, a government-chartered national bank remained politically controversial.
As a result, President Madison did not submit the bank's charter for renewal in The key legal and governmental support for economic development in the early 19th century ultimately came at the state, rather than the national, level.
When the national bank closed, state governments responded by creating over state-chartered banks within five years.After surviving the Great War, Americans grew into a Jazz Age, characterized by carefree living and a renewal of spirit.
This renaissance especially affected the intentions of African Americans and women, as artists created a separate Black culture and women experienced new freedoms and opportunities. theis labor union was formed right after the end of the Civil WAr and was the first major union to organize workers regardless of their race, gender, or skill level.
National Labor Union the Populist party platform included all of the following EXCEPT. The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways.
The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the s. AP US History Class Presentations [These files are saved in either powerpoint or pdf format] The Texas Revolution The Mexican War Midth Century Immigration.
UNIT FOUR: Chapters 14 - 16 The Civil War Reconstruction. UNIT FIVE: Chapters 17 - 21 U.S. Policy vs. Native Americans The Western Frontiers: Mining, Cattle and Farming The Four.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity.
Abraham Lincoln was the most important president of the 19th century, if not in all of American history. He led the nation through the Civil War, and was notable for his great speeches.
Lincoln's rise in politics was one of the greatest American stories.